December 31, 2011

Intravesical electrical stimulation in the treatment of micturition dysfunction in children.

Intravesical electrical stimulation in the treatment of micturition dysfunction in children.:
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Intravesical electrical stimulation in the treatment of micturition dysfunction in children.

Neurourol Urodyn. 2003;22(3):233-42

Authors: Gladh G, Mattsson S, Lindström S

AIMS: To evaluate the results of intravesical electrical stimulation (IVES) in an open prospective study to treat underactive detrusor in children. The treatment was offered as an alternative to clean intermittent catheterization (CIC). METHODS: Forty-four children were included, 21 girls and 3 boys (6-16 years, md 10) with idiopathic, 9 girls and 11 boys (4-18 years; md 13) with neurogenic underactive detrusor. IVES was given by a catheter electrode in the bladder (cathode) with the anode attached to the suprapubic abdominal skin. Continuous stimulation at 20 or 25 Hz was delivered by battery powered stimulators giving unipolar square-wave pulses (0,2 or 0,7 ms). Stimulation intensity was adjusted individually according to the acceptance of the child (12-64 mA). IVES was initially given at the clinic but 18 children had additional treatment at home. Effect of treatment was monitored by micturiton/incontinence diary, reports of bladder sensation, recordings of urinary flow, residual volume and frequency of urinary tract infections. RESULTS: The IVES-treatment was completed by 39/44 children. Long term normalization of the voiding (md 2,5 years follow up) was obtained for 20/24 children with idiopathic problems (83%) and 8/20 with neurogenic problems (40%). Another four had much improved bladder function. The neurogenic group required more stimulation sessions than the idiopathic group. Of those on CIC, 11/15 who completed IVES could discontinue the catheterization. The frequency of urinary tract infections and incontinence decreased significantly (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that IVES is a promising method to treat the underactive detrusor in children.

PMID: 12707874 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

December 30, 2011

[Clinical findings of neurogenic bladder in patients with Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and spinocerebellar degeneration]

[Clinical findings of neurogenic bladder in patients with Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and spinocerebellar degeneration]:
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[Clinical findings of neurogenic bladder in patients with Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and spinocerebellar degeneration]

Hinyokika Kiyo. 1997 Nov;43(11):765-9

Authors: Shimizu K, Yasukawa M, Yamamoto M, Hirao Y, Momose H, Kashiwai H, Kawata Y, Yamada K

Clinical symptoms, urodynamic findings, and urological treatment of 35 patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction caused by Parkinson's disease (11 patients), multiple sclerosis (10 patients), and spinocerebellar degeneration (14 patients) were reviewed retrospectively. Most of the patients had a relatively low stage of disease, when they were first seen by their urologists. Chief urological complaints were of irritation in 63.6% of Parkinson's disease and 64.3% of spinocerebellar degeneration cases, compared with obstruction in 80.0% of multiple sclerosis cases. Cystometry revealed underactive detrusor function in 69.2% of the patients with spinocerebellar degeneration but no abnormalities in the patients with Parkinson's disease or multiple sclerosis. Of 34 patients, excluding one patient lost to follow-up, the period of urological management ranged from one to 44 weeks with a mean of 11.0. The final methods of urinary drainage in 34 patients consisted of voluntary voiding in 20, clean intermittent catheterization in 11 including eight by self catheterization, incontinence into diaper in two, and indwelling catheter in one. Five patients were compelled to change urinary drainage method from voluntary voiding to clean intermittent catheterization because of increasing residual volume in four and progressing bladder deformity in one. However, none of them showed the clinical signs of primary disease progression. These findings indicate that in patients with Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and spinocerebellar degeneration, the urological symptoms can appear even in the early stage of disease. In addition, close follow-up is important in the urological management of neurogenic bladder patients with these diseases, because the disorders of the lower urinary tract may progress regardless of the status of the primary disease.

PMID: 9436018 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

December 7, 2011

Recurrent Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections in Women.

Recurrent Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections in Women.:

Recurrent Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections in Women.

J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2011 Dec 2;

Authors: Nosseir SB, Lind LR, Winkler HA

Abstract

Abstract Recurrent urinary tract infections most often present with symptoms of irritative voiding. In most cases, they are caused by reinfection with a previously isolated organism. Patients with one or more symptoms of uncomplicated recurrent urinary tract infection should undergo thorough examination and screening for underlying comorbidities that increase susceptibility. When frequent reinfections, empiric treatment relapse, persistent infections, or risk factors for complicated infections are encountered, patients may benefit from urodynamics, cystoscopy, renal ultrasound, intravenous urogram, or voiding cystourethrogram to evaluate for anatomic, functional, or metabolic abnormalities affecting the urinary tract (e.g., stones, stricture, obstruction, vesicoureteral reflux, lesions, detrusor underactivity). These patients may benefit from culture-guided empiric treatment and further evaluation by urology, nephrology, or infectious disease specialists. In patients with a history of uncomplicated urinary tract infections, empiric treatment guided by local antimicrobial resistance may efficiently treat a suspected recurrence. After successful treatment of the acute infection, postcoital prophylaxis, continuous prophylaxis, or self-start empiric treatment may be selected based on frequency of recurrent infections, temporal relation to intercourse, and patient characteristics. Ancillary measures such as probiotics, cranberry products, or local estrogen replacement may also be considered. This article will review the current definition, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, work-up, treatment, treatment side effects, and prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in women. A suggested algorithm for evaluation and treatment based on current literature is provided.


PMID: 22136339 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]