July 31, 2016

A cross-sectional study in the USA of the epidemiology and quality of life of underactive bladder symptoms.

A cross-sectional study in the USA of the epidemiology and quality of life of underactive bladder symptoms.
Int Urol Nephrol. 2016 Jul 29;
Authors: Faraj K, Doo F, Boura J, Vereecke A, Chancellor MB
Abstract
PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence, awareness, and quality of life (QOL) impact of symptoms suggestive of underactive bladder (UAB) in the USA.
METHODS: A thirteen-item paper survey was mailed to 25,000 individuals 60 years or older living in the USA. It aimed to collect information relating to demographics, familiarity with UAB, patient urinary symptoms, and QOL concerns.
RESULTS: Nine hundred and seventy-seven survey participants were stratified into four groups based on the number of UAB symptoms (straining, retention, and difficulty emptying) present: zero, one, two, and three. As the number of reported UAB symptoms increased, there was an increase prevalence in nocturia, urge, and urinary frequency (p < 0.0001). Increased UAB symptoms were associated with an increased prevalence of concerns related to urgency, urge incontinence, nocturia, and overall urinary status (p < 0.0001). Urology visits were most common in individuals who reported the most UAB symptoms (p < 0.0001); however, there was no difference among groups with regard to UAB awareness. Women were less likely to report any UAB symptoms (p < 0.0001), symptoms of urge (p = 0.001), retention (p = 0.002), difficulty emptying their bladder (p < 0.0001), a history of catheter use for retention (P = 0.002), and urology visits in the past 3 years (p < 0.0001). This study is limited in its inability to differentiate UAB from disorders that may mimic UAB clinically, based on the survey questions asked.
CONCLUSIONS: Underactive bladder symptoms are common and can have a significant impact on ones QOL, although awareness is still lacking among potentially affected individuals. More must be done to allow one to better differentiate between UAB and conditions that are clinically similar.
PMID: 27473156 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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July 30, 2016

Phenotyping women with detrusor underactivity by presumed etiology: Is it plausible?

Phenotyping women with detrusor underactivity by presumed etiology: Is it plausible?
Neurourol Urodyn. 2016 Jul 26;
Authors: Brown ET, Cohn JA, Kaufman MR, Dmochowski RR, Reynolds WS
Abstract
AIMS: Underactive bladder (UAB) is a symptom complex with poorly characterized causation. The aim of this study was to determine if clinical and UDS parameters differed between categories of presumed detrusor underactivity (DU) etiologies.
METHODS: A retrospective review was performed at a single institution from 2011 to 2015 to identify patients with symptoms of UAB. Patients were excluded if they were male, had anti-incontinence, or pelvic organ prolapse (POP) surgery within 1 year, or the UDS did not demonstrate DU as defined within. Subjects were stratified by etiology into four cohorts: cardiovascular disease manifestations (CV), cardiac risk factors (CVR), neurologic (N), or idiopathic (I). Patient demographics, comorbidities, symptomatology, physical exam, and UDS parameters were compared.
RESULTS: A total of 200 patients met inclusion criteria (CV: n = 53 [26.5%], CVR: n = 44 [22%] N: n = 81 [40.5%], I: n = 22 [11%]). Women in the CV cohort were significantly older and more likely to be post-menopausal (P < 0.001). There were no differences between cohorts for BMI (P = 0.48), recurrent UTI (P = 0.63), history of urinary retention (AUR) (P = 0.65), POP (0.49), American Urological Association Symptom Score (AUA-SS) (P = 0.06), presenting symptomatology [urgency, frequency, urgency urinary incontinence, AUR, incomplete emptying, hesitancy, UTI (P = 0.97)], or UDS parameters (first sensation [P = 0.25], normal desire [P = 0.80], strong desire [P = 0.58], capacity [P = 0.11], Qmax [P = 0.50], Pdet at Qmax [P = 0.22], post-void residual [P = 0.82]).
CONCLUSIONS: Though differences were observed between cohorts for age and menopausal status, clinical or urodynamic parameters did not demonstrate distinct differences across presumed categories of etiology, suggesting that the etiology of DU may be multifactorial. Neurourol. Urodynam. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
PMID: 27460338 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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July 23, 2016

Functional and Molecular Characterization of Hyposensitive Underactive Bladder Tissue and Urine in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat.

Functional and Molecular Characterization of Hyposensitive Underactive Bladder Tissue and Urine in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat.
PLoS One. 2014;9(7):e102644
Authors: Nirmal J, Tyagi P, Chuang YC, Lee WC, Yoshimura N, Huang CC, Rajaganapathy B, Chancellor MB
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The functional and molecular alterations of nerve growth factor (NGF) and Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and its receptors were studied in bladder and urine in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Diabetes mellitus was induced with a single dose of 45 mg/kg STZ Intraperitoneally (i.p) in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Continuous cystometrogram were performed on control rats and STZ treated rats at week 4 or 12 under urethane anesthesia. Bladder was then harvested for histology, expression of EP receptors and NGF by western blotting, PGE2 levels by ELISA, and detection of apoptosis by TUNEL staining. In addition, 4-hr urine was collected from all groups for urine levels of PGE2, and NGF assay. DM induced progressive increase of bladder weight, urine production, intercontraction interval (ICI) and residual urine in a time dependent fashion. Upregulation of Prostaglandin E receptor (EP)1 and EP3 receptors and downregulation of NGF expression, increase in urine NGF and decrease levels of urine PGE2 at week 12 was observed. The decrease in ICI by intravesical instillation of PGE2 was by 51% in control rats and 31.4% in DM group at week 12.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: DM induced hyposensitive underactive bladder which is characterized by increased inflammatory reaction, apoptosis, urine NGF levels, upregulation of EP1 and EP3 receptors and decreased bladder NGF and urine PGE2. The data suggest that EP3 receptor are potential targets in the treatment of diabetes induced underactive bladder.
PMID: 25050870 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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July 4, 2016

Differences in urodynamic variables for vesicoureteral reflux depending on the neurogenic bladder type.

Differences in urodynamic variables for vesicoureteral reflux depending on the neurogenic bladder type.
Ann Rehabil Med. 2014 Jun;38(3):347-52
Authors: Lee JS, Koo BI, Shin MJ, Chang JH, Kim SY, Ko HY
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To compare the urodynamic study variables at the onset of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) between the overactive and underactive bladders in patients with spinal cord injury who presented with VUR.
METHODS: A total of 28 (13 cases of detrusor overactivity and 15 detrusor underactivity) men were enrolled. We compared the urodynamic variables between the two groups; detrusor pressure and bladder compliance, the infused volume at the onset of VUR measured on a voiding cystourethrography and cystometric capacity, maximum detrusor pressure, and bladder compliance during filling cystometry were recorded.
RESULTS: At the onset of VUR, the bladder volume and compliance, except for the detrusor pressure, showed a significant difference between the two groups. The detrusor pressure, bladder volume, and bladder compliance relative to the cystometric capacity showed a significant difference between the two groups. The detrusor pressure, bladder volume, and bladder compliance at the onset of VUR relative to the cystometric bladder capacity did not show any significant difference between the two groups.
CONCLUSION: There were differences in some variables at the onset of VUR depending on the type of neurogenic bladder. The VUR occurred at a lower capacity in neurogenic bladder with detrusor overactivity than in neurogenic bladder with detrusor underactivity at the same pressure. VUR occurred at a lower intravesical pressure compared to that known as the critical detrusor pressure (≥40 cm H2O) required for the development of VUR. The results of our study demonstrate that the detrusor pressure should be maintained lower than the well known effective critical detrusor pressure for the prevention and treatment of VUR.
PMID: 25024958 [PubMed]
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